Close Scene Analysis: Trainspotting

Trainspotting, the 1996 British satirical drama film, is one of the most realistic and honest portrayals of illicit drug abuse in film. While there isn’t a very well defined plot, the movie follows a group of Scottish youths in Edinburgh who turn to heroin to escape the dreary monotony of everyday life. The protagonist, Marc Renton, is portrayed by Ewen McGregor and decides to give up heroin and the movies illustrates how this decision affects his relationships with his former using buddies. Danny Boyle, who garnered an Academy Award win for his direction of Slumdog Millionaire, directs the movie and the script, based on Irvine Welsh’s novel of the same name, is adapted by John Hodge. The scene that is being analyzed is called “Cold Turkey” and portrays the aforementioned Renton in his bedroom alone withdrawing from heroin. Very rarely will you find a scene that communicates so much to the viewer with so little dialogue. To understand this scene it should be put in some context. Up until this point we see Renton struggling to kick his addiction. He gets arrested and is spared of jail time as long as he agrees to go to a methadone clinic and try to get clean. He attempts to get one more hit and in another unbelievable scene, which utilizes music perfectly, Renton overdoses. Boyle uses Lou Reed’s “Perfect Day” a song etched with irony as the somber tone doesn’t match the rather the nostalgic and sometimes menacing lyrics. His parents pick him up from the hospital with hopes of cleaning out his system and the scene “Cold Turkey” begins at 49’ 59”. This scene is important because for the first time, we see some genuine regret from Renton for his actions and its one of the most truthful portrayals of drug withdrawal ever shot.

The scene begins with Renton’s father carrying him into his bedroom. This is the first in a series of actions carefully planned by Boyle to portray Renton as helpless as a young child. We hear “Perfect Day” in the background, which is just a carryover from the previous scene, and it quickly fades.  His father removes his shoes while his mother removes his jacket and unbuttons his shirt, again reinforcing just how vulnerable he is at this point. His mother then tucks him in, continuing with the theme of depicting Renton as a child. The staging of the scene perpetuates the theme as the wallpaper in the room is of trains, something that most would associate with a child. The viewer then takes on Renton’s subjective point of view as he watches his parents leave the room. The next shot is a close-up of the lock on Renton’s door, which his father pulls and the sound is exaggerated and amplified to emphasize the feeling of being trapped.

Right after his parents leave, instrumental music begins with short staccato beats. Music plays a vital role in the scene. The music continues and Renton’s voiceover is added to the mix. Voiceover is utilized throughout the film to guide the viewer. The camera slowly zooms in on his face and McGregor does a really terrific job at not just conveying fear, but rather a combination of the anticipation of the oncoming sickness coupled with fear. The camera then moves to behind Renton’s head and a wide-angle lens is employed, giving the room a distorted sense. His bed then appears to be moving backwards, making the room appear larger and Renton smaller in comparison. Slowly more sounds are added to the cacophony and the beat begins to speed up, alerting the viewer that something is going to happen. The camera returns to a close-up of Renton’s face, slightly off center in the field of view, sweating and twitching and once again another sound is heard, this one the voice of a girl Renton had slept with earlier in the film. We are now on Renton’s subjective point of view as his dad enters the room. Again, a wide-angle lens is utilized to make the distance from Renton’s bed to the door seem longer, to make the room and impending sickness feel inescapable.

His mother brings him food and Renton turns away, unable to even look at it as the first dialogue of the scene is heard. Renton says that “maybe I should go back to the clinic” and the desperation is so palpable. After the dialogue, which switches off in subjective point of view camera work, we experience a close up of Renton with the camera under the covers. The viewer now sees a number of Renton’s imaginings started with his pal Begbie. The close-up continues and follows Renton very intently, employing rapid zoom-ins and zoom-outs, which make the camera unsteady, adding to the chaos of the scene. The viewer now hears the sound of a baby crying softly and as Renton turns his head we take on his implied subjective point of view and see the baby crawling on the ceiling. For some background, earlier in the movie, Renton was awoken to the sound of screaming at Mother Superior’s, his drug dealer’s house, and found that the baby of one of his friends had died. The camera flashes back to Renton, visibly disturbed, zooming in and out sporadically and as his level of panic slowly increases, we hear the sound of a cymbal crashing three times, another effective use of sound as the cymbals work with McGregor’s expression to increase the tension.

As this montage continues, the viewer now sees a game show being played with Renton’s parents as the contestants answering questions about HIV. This was the 1980s when the HIV epidemic was at its height especially among intravenous drug users. This also helped foreshadow the next scene where Renton is tested. It flashes back to the Renton, the camera once again under his covers with him, the wide-angle lens creating a visually striking image. The acting by McGregor towards the end of this scene is absolutely fantastic as he truly illustrates the feeling of wanting to jump out of his own skin, an incredibly difficult emotion to portray. The babies crying returns and now a tracking shot is used but the camera actually appears to be on the ceiling and it gives the impression that the baby is moving closer to Renton which allows the audience to connect the growing fear and guilt with the baby. Once more we are returned to Renton, enlarged in the frame, the camera following him around shakily complementing the utter chaos of the scene. Another figment of Renton’s imagination appears and again sound is employed as we see Spud, Renton’s friend who is in jail for committing the same crime as him, banging his shackles against a door. Once again the sound allows us to connect Spud with Renton’s dormant guilt. The game show reappears and another question is asked about HIV.

Another figment appears and it is Tommy, another one of Renton’s friends, who is looking pale and much like an addict. Tommy was one of Renton’s friends who didn’t take part in heroin until left by his girlfriend and the juxtaposition between his muscular body at the beginning, and his thin frail look now help to illustrate the effects of the drug. Fill light is used here to cast a shadow behind Tommy to make him appear menacing. As has been evident through the scene, the theme of guilt is once again prevalent as Renton’s reaction illustrates. As if the images didn’t depict the theme of guilt enough, we are brought back to the game show host who asks “is he guilty or not guilty?” The final shot is a worm’s eye view shot of the baby on the ceiling in Renton’s subjective point of view as the babies head rotates and we now see its face for the first time, which makes the experience more personable and the guilt more real.

This scene was chosen because it has an unbelievable ability to express a powerful message to the audience without the use of dialogue. The camera work was extremely influential in reinforcing the disorder and the chaos of the scene and the use of sound, both diegetic and non-diegetic, was vital as it complemented the lighting, powerful acting and cinematography. Boyle and his cinematographer Brian Tufano staged a masterful scene that accurately illustrates the horrors of withdrawal and vividly expresses the extreme guilt Renton feels due to his past actions.

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Close Scene Analysis: Man on Wire

In 2008, James Marsh’s Man on Wire took the festival circuit by storm winning the Special Jury Award and Audience Award at the Full Frame Documentary Film Festival and then capturing the Jury Prize and Audience Award in the World Cinema: Documentary category at the prestigious Sundance Film Festival. A few months later, it took home the Oscar for Best Documentary Feature at the 81st Academy Awards. Man on Wire chronicles Philippe Petit’s wire-walk between the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in August of 1974. Constructed like a classic heist film and utilizing interviews, blow-by-blow re-creation and re-enactments as well as archival footage even including Super 8 footage from Petit’s personal camera, Man on Wire transcends the label of documentary. With this strong underlying narrative, Man on Wire comes to a head during a fantastic climax scene that mixes together still photographs, interviews and archival footage to simultaneously tell parallel stories and leave the audience in awe.

A still-photo of Petit

In order to comprehend how this scene serves the filmmakers goals, it’s important to first examine what the filmmaker’s goals are. Given that the film is not advocating a social cause, the goal reverts to telling a great story. Marsh sets out to tell a story about a man, but more importantly about an attitude towards life that refuses to acknowledge limits and boundaries and to tell it a nostalgic way as opposed to sentimental. Marsh wants to introduce the audience to a world where anything is possible and uses the film as his medium. With the prevalent theme of the consequences of human relationships, Marsh crafts parallel stories that trigger excitement, suspense and sweaty palms for the audience.

To fully understand the scene in question, its vital to briefly put the scene in context within the larger story. Up until this point, Marsh chronicled Philippe Petit, a French wirewalker and street performer who had previously performed a high-wire walk between the towers of the Notre Dame in Paris as well as between two pylons of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in Australia. Having seen a picture of the Twin Towers in a magazine, Petit became obsessed with wire walking between them and begins to plan his strategy, which included numerous trips to New York. Following a tumultuous build-up, Petit and his crew finally set up the wire, which leads to this scene.

A still photograph of Philippe Petit, as seen in Man on Wire

The scene begins with a still photograph of Petit’s first step out onto the wire, accompanied by the sounds of nature and Petit’s voiceover, “death is very close.” The frame remains on the still photograph for a long time, which becomes a theme throughout and we slowly zoom out to gain perspective of a small man against the massive backdrop of the building. While Marsh is not present in the movie, you could still tell his stance towards Petit is one of awe and marvel. He keeps the still frames of Petit on the screen for what most would consider far too long to give the audience the feel that something is happening and we need to pay close attention. No live footage of his walk exists and while re-enactment worked in other times of the movie, in this instance it would seem unsatisfactory so the montage of still images seemed to be the way to go. The photographs helped to capture how ephemeral this moment was and how dream like it was and watching it, it almost conjures up visions of some sort of miracle.

The score also complements the scene perfectly as the gentle piano seems both menacing but jubilant, evoking either a foreboding feeling or a triumphant feeling. Marsh effortlessly mixes in an interview with Petit as he recalls his experience and then an interview with his companion who set up the cable. The companion breaks into tears and it is now apparent that Marsh successfully transmitted a classic story of a hero going on an impossible quest with all the setbacks and impediments along the way and succeeding nonetheless. The still frames continue and he includes a shot from the ground of a microscopic Petit in between the two towers and slowly zooms in. It was a perfect juxtaposition between Petit’s idealist artistry and the towers, which represented the financial and capitalist center of the world.

One in a series of still photographs that Marsh employs so sucessfully

One of Marsh’s goals was to not romanticize the event but rather tell stories from many different perspectives and use the overlapping accounts and parallel stories to make the story dynamic. The editing here really lends itself to that as we now move on to an interview of his then-girlfriend who was at the base of towers as she recalls her experience. The amazement in her voice helps illustrate how incredible this moment was. We revert back to still photographs while still hearing her interview and now Marsh edits in a still photo of people at the base of the towers looking up in wonderment and then another interview from a different companion so he presents the audience with 4 distinct accounts from that day.

The score becomes more intense and Marsh zooms out on one of the still photographs and the audience sees in the corner a pair of Port Authority policemen watching Petit from the roof. Marsh edits in archival footage of the media interviewing Charles Daniels, one of the policemen who witnessed Petit. Marsh wanted to tell a story, one that is part of New York City folklore but wanted to give an honest all-encompassing tale of the event and he succeeded admirably. By effortlessly splicing present-day interviews, complementary sound editing, still photographs and archival footage, Marsh not only presents 5 distinct accounts of the events that transpired that day, he makes the audience feel present at an event that occurred over 30 years prior with no live footage available and does it in such a way that there is massive poetic undertones.

The climactic scene of Man on Wire is one of the more memorable scenes in recent documentary history. Combining a flawless use of still photographs, a fabulous score and perfectly edited archival footage, Marsh is able to recount these iconic moments from multiple perspectives. The scene comes together perfectly as he seamlessly blends the content and beautifully serves his goals. It is the perfect conclusion to a free-flowing story that built excitement, suspense and anticipation and like Marsh wanted, makes the audience feel like anything is possible.

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